Polyphenols from Cafayate Grape Pomace Display High Inhibitory Activity on Human Acetylcholinesterase
Paula Belen Salazar, Carlos Minahk, and Maria Jose Rodriguez-Vaquero*
*CONICET – UNT, Ayacucho 471, 4000, Argentina (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Polyphenols are ubiquitous plant metabolites of increasing interest due to their benefits on human health. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity is a very promising strategy because it may impact several pathologies such as myasthenia gravis, glaucoma, and Alzheimer’s disease. This study analyzed the effect of phenolics-rich extracts from winery wastes on human acetylcholinesterase activity. Grape pomace of Torrontes and Malbec grape varieties was obtained from a Cafayate winery (Valles Calchaquíes, Argentina). From each sample, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts were obtained using maceration and soxhlet equipment. The total phenolic content and a preliminary phenolic profile in each waste sample were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and TLC assay. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of different extracts and pure phenolic compounds was determined by Ellman’s colorimetric method and also using indoxylacetate as the chromogenic substrate. Human red blood cell acetylcholinesterase in its membrane-bound form was used as the target enzyme because this isoform was a good model of the more important isoforms associated with Alzheimer’s and myasthenia gravis. Both grape pomace extracts noticeably inhibited AChE, but the red grape pomace was more effective at inhibiting enzyme activity. These findings suggest that waste material from the winemaking industry could be a promising source of anticholinesterase agents. These byproducts could have high added value, which will aid the regional economy.
Funding Support: -PICT 2015-1508 PRESTAMO BID -PICT 2012-2998