Impact of Intercontinental Bulk Wine Shipping Conditions on the Aroma and Sensory Profile of Chardonnay
Dominik Durner,* Ann-Katrin Walther, and
*Institute for Viticulture and Oenology, DLR Rheinpfalz, Breitenweg 71, Neustadt an der Weinstraße, Germany (email@example.com)
How shipping of bulk wine affects the aroma and sensory profile of wine is attracting increased attention. High temperatures may occur in containers when bulk wine is shipped long distances. Elevated temperatures may adversely affect aroma and color of wines. We compared the record of environmental conditions during intercontinental bulk wine shipping with analysis of the aroma and sensory composition after transportation. Three bulk wine shipments, each including six containers filled with 24,000 L Chardonnay in flexitanks or ISO-tanks, were investigated. The intercontinental shipping route was scheduled for different seasons over one year. For reference, samples of the identical wine were dispatched via air freight express. The six containers were either placed at three different positions on the vessel or equipped with different isolation materials to find out how to optimize the shipping process. Wine temperatures reached 36°C in a worst-case scenario. Different positions on the vessel made an average difference of 7°C. Isolation could lower the maximum temperature by 10°C. Wine at the tank surface responded much faster to the outside air temperature, resulting in temporary gradients of 12°C during dwell time periods in marine terminals with heavy sun radiation and no movement of the container. Temperature recordings were segmented into 5°C steps and multiplied with exposure time. Time-temperature integrals were correlated with descriptive sensory and GC × GC data. PLS analysis revealed that pineapple, banana, and citrus flavor decreased significantly when wines were exposed to temperatures >25°C for >60 days, >30°C for >10 days, or >35°C for <1 day. A significant decrease in ethyl and acetate esters occurred even earlier under the same temperature conditions.
Funding Support: German Ministry of Economics, Vineris Winery, Lidl